Annotated bibliography – how cloud computing has improved how IT adds value to business

Various advances in technology have brought along increased efficiency in many business operations following such processes’ automation. The paper will focus on how adoption of cloud computing has benefited the way IT can deliver value to businesses.

Armbrust, M., Fox, A., Griffith, R., Joseph, A. D., Katz, R., Konwinski, A., Lee, G., …Zaharia, M. (2010). A view of cloud computing. Communications of the ACM, 53(4), 50-58. doi: 10.1145/1721654.1721672.

Armbrust et al. set out to clarify and differentiate cloud from conventional computing and identify the main obstacles and opportunities of the former. First the paper addresses what cloud computing comprises – “applications delivered as services over the Internet and the hardware and systems software in the data centers that provide those services” (p. 50) – then describes various terminologies (e.g. public versus private cloud, and utility computing) used in explaining cloud computing aspects. Further the article identifies ten challenges and opportunities for cloud computing adoption and offers a prediction on its growth in business sectors.

The information presented in the paper follows a logical sequence with relevant sources from which the information is derived being presented. The paper appropriately identifies the aspects of cloud computing that provide new ways from conventional computing and based on such a background ten obstacles and associated opportunities  are presented. The paper presents credible information to help understand different cloud computing perspectives. The source of this paper is a professional journal published by the Association for Computing Machinery, a global educational and scientific society whose aim is to deliver resources that advance computing as a science and a profession. The article is from a recent issue of the journal – April 2010 – thus provides current information in the field of cloud computing. In-text citation: (Armbrust, et al., 2010).

Buyya, R., Yeo, C. S., Venugopal, S., Broberg, J. & Brandic, I. (2009). Cloud computing and emerging IT platforms: Vision, hype, and reality for delivering computing as the 5th utility. Future Generation Computer Systems, 25(6), 599-616. doi:10.1016/j.future.2008.12.001.

In this paper, the authors demarcate cloud computing from other computing advancements of the 21st century and predict the future of the technology in improving business outcomes. The paper for instance differentiates amongst cluster, grid and cloud systems based on a variety of traits (e.g. capacity, ownership, scalability, and resource management) to help visualize the advancements that have occurred throughout the 21st century. The paper then analysis the current advancements in cloud computing including a presentation of the current market structure with a comparative analysis of providers on various properties such as the provider’s focus, service type and user access interface.

The paper provides a detailed assay of cloud computing technology through an historical background on its predecessors and then predicts the future of cloud computing by incorporating emerging trends. Based on such assay the paper presents models for pricing alternatives that would better the affordability of the service thus reducing costs to the businesses while presenting appropriate references and definitions throughout. The paper was obtained from a professional journal – Future Generation Computer Systems – which is an international journal aimed at covering issues in grid computing and e-science. With the new emerging technologies in the computing world, the journal presents a credible resource to track changes occurring in that arena. The paper was published in a 2009 issue of the journal with the online edition being availed in December 2008, thus presents recent information on the topic. In-text referencing: first time, (Buyya, Yeo, Venugopal, Broberg & Brandic, 2009); subsequent citations (Buyya, et al., 2009).

Durkee, D. (2010). Why cloud computing will never be free. Communications of the ACM, 53(5), 62-69. doi: 10.1145/1735223.1735242

This article discusses the obstacles towards achieving minimal pricing to increase the adoption of cloud technology by many organizations. First the article addresses the business needs for cloud computing – time sharing – then and then describes the essential characteristics of cloud technology that ensures the needs are met. The article then briefly explains different structures of cloud computing products – infrastructure as a service, software as a service and platform as a service with further association of pricing strategy for these to the existing market competitiveness. By identifying the challenges to adoption of cloud computing, the author provides the basis through which various changes needed to better cloud computing outcomes to both providers and customers are discussed.

The discussions presented in the paper offer a sound overview of cloud computing aspects and challenges in a simple and logical sequence. The paper provides a basis for studies aimed at addressing how cloud computer technology can be harnessed without making its costs out of reach for many small and medium enterprises. Just as in Ambrust, et al. (2010) article discussed earlier, this paper was obtained from a professional journal published by the Association for Computing Machinery. The article being a more recent than the article than the article discussed earlier – May2010 – provides relevant emerging issues with the use of cloud computing.  In-text citation: (Durkee, 2010).

Etro, F. (2009). The economic impact of cloud computing on business creation, employment and output in Europe: An application of the endogenous market structures approach to a GPT innovation. Review of Business and Economics, 54(2), 179-208. Retrieved July 12, 2010, from http://www.intertic.org/Policy%20Papers/RBE.pdf

The purpose of this paper was evaluate the economic impacts of adoption of cloud computing and assessment of how the technology impacts on business establishment and competition. First the paper discusses the elements of cloud computing and the implications of the technology to businesses providing the benefits associated with its adoption. By use of a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) calibrated model – a macroeconomic model aimed at assessing the short and long term economic reactions – the paper further evaluates the economic impacts of cloud computing using country and sector data derived from EU statistics (Eurostat).

The results of the analysis indicate that cloud computing adoption could make considerable contributions to GDP growth thus positively influence real economic indicators such as employment levels. Further, out of the reduction in fixed costs such as hardware costs needed for entry into a given market, the paper finds that cloud computing could offer incentives for entry thus increasing competitiveness in the market. The paper gives a background on some of the points of focus in evaluating the usefulness of cloud computing to business and countries. The paper was obtained from a professional journal that has been in existence over a half a century with special focus on the Belgian and European market but has recently incorporated major structural changes in line with the trend towards globalization to deal with aspects affecting business firms in a global environment. The article was derived from a 2009 issue of the journal thus addressing information relevant to the current business environment. In-text citation (Etro, 2009).

Everett, C. (2009). Cloud computing – a question of trust. Computer Fraud & Security, 9(6), 5-7 doi: 10.1016/S1361-3723(09)70071-5.

Potential security risks caused by use of cloud technology forms the main issue that this paper addresses. While recognizing the advantages of adoption of cloud technology, the author notes of the security risks associated with their use and how industry players are trying to deal with such security concerns. Of these security risks the paper notes that lack of awareness of where data is stored and the emphasize for speed in retrieval may curtail application of due diligence and other audits necessary to prevent threats such as insider  threats and vendor lock-in.

Despite the security assurances from the cloud security alliance and Jericho Forum on cloud-computing-related concerns, the paper notes that much more needs to be done to ensure high security awareness especially for small enterprises is achieved. The paper proposes measures such as formal accreditation and coordination of activities of providers that would better the cloud computing experience for most firms thus provides a useful source of information on challenges facing cloud computing use. The paper was sourced from a professional journal whose focus is addressing practical issues of use of information technology in commercial organizations. The paper was published in a June 2009 issue thus presents information on recent challenges that face the use of information technology in commercial organizations. In-text citation (Everett, 2009).

Lee, Y. C. & Zomaya, A. Y (2010). Rescheduling for reliable job completion with the support of clouds. Future Generation Computer Systems [Article in Press]. doi: 10.1016/j.future.2010.02.010.

One of the main performance concerns with distributed computing systems is ensuring task completion within estimated time frames. The aim of this paper was thus to evaluate how cloud computing technology can be used to better rescheduling aimed at addressing delays in job completion. The paper first makes an introduction of the cloud computing concept and differentiates them with grid computing aspects.

By making use of a system model and a scheduling model the paper examines how the cloud resources can be used in addition to grid resources for task rescheduling purposes. The results of the analysis reveal that use of cloud resources could significantly reduce job completion delay periods thus implying better performance for the firm. This paper presents a detailed analysis of some of the benefits of cloud computing to businesses thus a useful source for use in the project. Just as in the Buyya et al. (2009) paper discussed earlier, the current paper was sourced from the journal Future Generation Computer Systems but is a more recent article (2010 article in press) that address a specific area where cloud computing could be used to better business outcomes. In-text citation: (Lee, & Zomaya, 2010).

Misra, S. C. & Mondal, A. (2010). Identification of a company’s suitability for the adoption of cloud computing and modelling its corresponding return on investment. Mathematical and Computer Modelling, (article in press), doi: 10.1016/j.mcm.2010.03.037.

Misra and Mondal provide a guide to businesses wishing to migrate to cloud platform from conventional practices by evaluating business characteristics that would make it favorable for such adoption. Organizational characteristics such as the size of the IT resources, their utilization pattern and the sensitivity of the data they are used for are advanced to influence the adoption of cloud technology. The paper then develops a return on investment model to help firms evaluate their suitability for using the cloud architecture.

The paper presents a simplified, but in-depth analysis of the economics of cloud technology through calculation of a suitability index for a firm’s cloud computing use. Through a review of literature the paper identifies the need to base technological shifts on better outcomes for the organization thus identifying the motivation behind the study. The paper further provides the implications for its analysis and proposes further studies that would better customize the analysis to individual companies or industry sectors. The paper was obtained from a professional journal that embodies a diverse range of disciplines that apply mathematical and computer modelling for theoretical or practical modelling purposes. The paper is a recent source of information (2010, article in press) providing an important guideline for evaluating the suitability of an entity to adopt cloud computing aspects. In-text citation: (Misra & Mondal, 2010).

Sharif, A. M. (2010). It’s written in the cloud: The hype and promise of cloud computing. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 23(2), 131-134. doi: 10.1108/17410391011019732

This paper sets out to present the trend in cloud computing IT platform. Through an historical background the paper first identifies the antecedents of cloud computing in such infrastructures as application service provider, service oriented architecture and grid computing. The paper then discusses the implications of cloud computing to such groups as software vendors and users of such software. Through such discussions the paper contends that cloud computing advances will result more from ICT consumption behaviors rather than computing discussions. The paper further argues that only when the cloud platforms allows for the emergence of new ways of doing business and engaging and connecting with people, will the real value of such platforms to businesses be evident.

The paper provides an overview of cloud computing and presents the business needs that the technology need to enhance to better its adoption in business sectors. Through such presentation the paper provides relevant information needed to predict the future of cloud computing as an enhancer of favorable business outcomes. This paper was obtained from a professional journal whose aim is to provide research on areas of importance to management, consultancy, and education in the area of business enterprises. The journal is published by a publisher – Emerald insight – whose focus is on management and business research. The paper offers current information on cloud computing having been accepted for publication in September 2009. In-text citation (Sharif, 2010).

Svantesson, D. & Clarke, R. (2010). Privacy and consumer risks in the cloud computing. Computer Law & Security Review, 26(4), 391-397. doi: 10.1016/j.clsr.2010.05.005.

Svantesson and Clarke (2010) article addresses some of the challenges associated with adoption of cloud computing by businesses. The article aims to evaluate the privacy concerns and consumer risks aspects of cloud computing. Since cloud computing technology is at its infancy stage, the authors contend that appropriate privacy impact assessment, where these are used to store sensitive data such as personal information, may be lacking thus subjecting users of the services to a risk of privacy breach. Further privacy concerns are noted to arise with factors such as cross boarder operations, time period of data storage, and usage of data contributing diverse privacy concerns.

The second concern of the paper relates to consumer risks with discussions on such aspects as impact of various contractual provisions on users and providers being made. Through the discussions presented the paper highlights some of the main obstacles that prevent speedy adoption of cloud computing and provides a background to inform on attempts aimed at addressing the issues encumbering the technology in order to better its usage. The source of this paper is a professional international journal whose focus is addressing legal and security issues of technology and computer use. The paper was published in a recent issue of the journal (2010 issue) and provides current and potential future legal challenges that cloud computing could embody. In-text citation: (Svantesson & Clarke, 2010).

Weinhardt, C., Anandasivam, A., Blau, B., Borissov, N., Meini, T., Michalk, W.  & Stöber, J. (2009). Cloud computing – A classification, business models, and research directions. Business & Information Systems Engineering, 5, 391- 399. doi: 10.1007/s12599-009-0071-2.

The purpose of this article is to provide a detailed assessment of the business opportunities availed by the introduction of cloud computing. The article first points out the differences between grid and cloud computing aspects via criteria such as virtualization, application type and business models then evaluates the models of businesses under cloud framework. The article finally the article offers insights into future research areas that would better the application of the cloud business model presented.

Through the discussions presented in the article various aspects relevant to the current project are discussed. The differentiation of cloud and grid technologies for instance addresses issues such as pricing aspects that are vital in making business decisions. Cloud business models presented also inform on the challenges that exist in structuring the business for maximum gains from the technology. The article thus presents a credible source for use in assessing how IT use in enhancing favorable business outcomes has been bettered by the adoption of cloud computing. The source of this paper is an English translation of the German journal Wirtschaftsinformatik, which has been in existence for over a half a decade and it’s a source of credible information in the area of engineering of information systems targeted for the business environment.The paper was accepted for publication in May 2009 and provides current information on the structure of cloud engineering businesses based on observed trends. In-text citation: first time (Weinhardt, Anandasivam, Blau, Borissov, Meini, Michalk, & Stöber, 2009); subsequent citations (Weinhardt, et al. 2009).

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