January 10th, 2018
Assessing the Effects of Psychotherapy and Mixed Martial Arts in treating male compound trauma – conclusion
There has been relatively little research addressing the topic of male victimization in IPV compared to female victimization. This study sought to assess the reasons behind such a phenomenon, assess the incidence and prevalence of male victimization in regard to IPV in the modern society, and evaluate treatment approaches for males who fall victim to intimate partners. The study approach was to conduct a literature review that enlightens on the aspects evaluated.
The lack of research is attributable to the consideration of the male to be stronger than the female in respect to physical, mental and emotional aspects. This conceptualization has served to depict the male as the perpetrator and the female as the victim in IPV cases. Due to such societal stereotypes, very few partners are willing to disclose their experiences with female-perpetrators thus limiting the population from which samples evaluating the phenomenon can be drawn.
Although the classification of IPV has elicited controversy regarding the forms of IPV, recent evidence indicate that women also perpetrate severe forms of IPV traditionally though to be restricted to male perpetrators. Such cases have highlighted the increasing incidence and prevalence of female-perpetrated IPV necessitating an increased attention on addressing the issue of Male victimization by their intimate partners. Studies that have attempted to address this issue have faced challenges such as the bias associated with self-reports and inadequate representation of males from diverse races. However, studies on psychotherapeutic interventions highlight that reinforcement of verbal approaches with physical activity, for instance through martial arts, boost the victims self-esteem thus enhancing their recovery from traumatic experiences of victimization.
Anderson, K. L. (2002). Perpetrator or victim? Relationships between intimate partner violence and well-being. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64(4), 851 – 863.
Bader, M. (2009). Male sexuality: Why women don’t understand it and men don’t either. New York, NY: Rowman and Littlefield.
Badinter, E. (1992). XY: On masculine identity. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Brizendine, L. (2010). The male brain. New York, NY: Three Rivers Press.
Brooks, G. (2010). Beyond the crisis of masculinity: A transtheoretical model for male-friendly therapy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Carless, D. & Douglas, K. (2008). The role of sport and exercise in recovery from serious mental illness: two case studies. International Journal of Men’s Health, 7(2), 137 – 156, doi: 10.3149/jmh.0702.137
Corneau, G. (1991). Absent fathers, lost sons: The search for masculine identity. Boston, MA: Shambhala.
Dowd, L.S., Leisring, P.A., & Rosenbaum, A. (2005). Partner aggressive women: Characteristics and treatment attrition. Violence and Victims, 20(2), 219 – 233.
Flink, A., & Paavilainen, E. (2011). Women’s experiences of their violent behavior in an intimate partner relationship. Qualitative Health Research, 20(3), 306 – 318, doi:10.1177/1049732309358325
Forke, C.M., Myers, R.K, Catallozzi, M, & Schwarz, D.F. (2008). Relationship violence among female and male college undergraduate students. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med., 162(7), 634 – 641.
Hines, D.A., & Douglas, E.M. (2010a). Intimate terrorism by women towards men: Does it exist? Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, 2(3), 36 – 56, doi:10.5042/jacpr.2010.0335
Hines, D.A., & Douglas, E.M. (2010b). A closer look at men who sustain intimate terrorism by women. Partner Abuse, 1(3), 286 – 313, doi: 10.1891/1946-65220.127.116.116
Hines, D. A., & Douglas, E. M. (2011). Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in men who sustain intimate partner violence: A study of helpseeking and community samples. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 12(2), 112 – 127, doi:10.1037/a0022983
Johnson, M.P. (1995). Patriarchal terrorism and common couple violence: two forms of violence against women. Journal of Marriage and the Family 57(). 283–294.
National Archive of Criminal Justice Data. (2010). National crime victimization survey resource guide, retrieved from http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/NACJD/NCVS/
Orcutt, H.K., Garcia, M., & Pickett, S.M. (2005). Female-perpetrated intimate partner violence and romantic attachment style in a college student sample. Violence and Victims, 20 (3), 287 – 302.
Randle, A. A., & Graham, C. A. (2011). A review of the evidence on the effects of intimate partner violence on men. Psychology Of Men & Masculinity, 12(2), 97 – 111, doi:10.1037/a0021944
Real, T. (1997). I don’t want to talk about it: Overcoming the secret legacy of male depression. New York, NY: Scribner.
Sartre, Jean-Paul. (1946). Existentialism is a humanism. Paris: Editions Nagel.
Steinman, A. & Fox, D.J. (1974). The male dilemma. New York, NY: Jason Aronson.
Warner, K., Baro, A., & Eigenberg, H. (2004). Stories of resistance: Exploring women’s responses to male violence. Feminist Family Therapy, 16 (4), 21-42, doi:10.1300/J086v16n04_02
Weiser, M., Kutz I., Kutz, S.J., & Weiser, D. (1995). Psychotherapeutic aspects of the martial arts. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 49(1), 118 – 127.
Weiss, K.G. (2010). Male sexual victimization: Examining men’s experiences of rape and sexual assault. Men and Masculinities, 12 (3), 275 – 298, doi:10.1177/1097184X08322632
Wheeler, K. (2007). Psychotherapeutic strategies for healing trauma. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 43(3), 132-141.