Review of Kozol’s Essay – Inequalities in American Education

Kozol’s essay, “Still Separate, Still Unequal”, argues that the continued inequality in American education is out of failure to address the issue of racial segregation. From the onset, the essay notes of increasing re-segregation since the legal effect of cases such as Brown v. Board of Education has waned with time. Moreover, as Kozol (41-42) observed, there has been a rising disinterest in achieving the clamor for integration compared to the agitation noted  during the era of civil rights movements. Throughout the essay, Kozol brings out the issue of inequality with vivid examples and statistics that support his arguments advanced, the result being an essay that clearly and effectively presents the case against segregated education. (more…)

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Relevance of Management Theories to organisations today

Since the development of scientific theory of management by Frederick W. Taylor, there have been several developments in management thought. Such advances have included the Bureaucratic theory championed by Weber, behavioral theories such as those by Mary Parker Follet, human relations movement introduced by Elton Mayo, and contemporary theories such as theory systems theory and theory Z.  Accompanying these developments in management thought have however been changes in the organisations’ operational environment. (more…)

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How Inflation affects Unemployment Level

Various macroeconomic evaluations have attempted to describe the relationship that exists between inflation and unemployment level. For example, the Phillips curve, named after A. W. H. Phillip (1914-1975), envisages an inverse relationship between inflation rate and the employment rate. According to Phillips, decrease in unemployment level is associated with an increase in inflation, partly because of an increase in nominal wages and thus the increase in demand that pushes prices upwards. (more…)

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Nursing: – Community needs assessment

Assessment of community health needs is critical for the determination of resources needed to provide relevant, effective, and efficient care to the community. According to Harvey (1994), community needs assessment refers to the delineation of the factors that are critical for improvement of a population’s health. While community needs assessment has been traditionally the responsibility of authorities addressing public health, nurses, especially community nurses, are increasingly being involved in community needs assessment due to their increasing involvement in the provision of care in community settings. Historically, the model for needs assessment in the community has been based on an epidemiological approach that involves the evaluation of mortality and morbidity data for various diseases. Increasingly, however, incorporation of the sociological perspective into the epidemiological approach has led to the development of a community-profile approach to needs assessment. In this approach, not only the epidemiology data  is considered, but also sociological data on inequality and deprivation that can highlight the reasons behind observed epidemiology data. Criticisms that the above two approaches to community needs assessment are focused on the provider/professional perspective has led to the introduction of a third perspective, consumer perspective, for community needs assessment. In this third perspective, emphasis is on community consultation and involvement in setting the health priorities. In this paper, the benefits and drawbacks of these three approaches are reviewed with examples of their application in a specific community.

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How the practice of nursing and patient care delivery is Evolving in the U.S.

The healthcare reform in the U.S., the aging population, and increasing quality of healthcare will continue to play a significant role in shaping the direction of nursing practice. For example, the aging of the population implies that more people will increasingly need care services, and thus enhancing the demand for nursing services. Further, with the push to minimize the cost of healthcare, and thus reduce the length of stay in hospitals, nurses are increasingly likely to play greater roles in community settings rather than in hospitals. Nursing jobs within the acute care and inpatient settings are thus likely to stagnate, whereas jobs in community settings and nursing homes are likely to increase. Added to these shifts, will be an increasing need for nurses to have cross-cultural competence as they are likely to find themselves involved with patients who espouse diverse beliefs, values, and norms based on their cultural backgrounds. Moreover, nursing practice will also likely be shaped by the change to electronic records from paper documentation, which will not only affect how nurses use patients’ information but will also pose increasing challenges related to privacy and confidentiality of patient information. The influence of these aspects on the future of nursing practice are considered subsequently in this paper.

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Challenges of living with chronic illness in remote areas of Australia

Chronic illnesses such as diabetes and cancer present a high burden of disease and require periodic interventions for people afflicted to have a better quality of life. In remote areas of Australia, various factors present a barrier for access to the needed care to those affected. Among these factors are lower social economic statuses compared to regional and city areas, poorer access to health infrastructure that can help for early detection and treatment of the diseases as compared to regions and cities, and lack of enough culturally competent health professionals who can help to encourage healthy behaviors through health promotion. The effects of these factors on the ability of residents of remote areas to access relevant care when suffering from chronic illnesses is considered briefly below.

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Why Fascism took root in Germany in the 1930s

The rise of fascism in Germany in the 1930s can be attributed to various factors that had predominated after the First World War. For example, following World War I, the economies of many European countries had declined leading to widespread apathy toward the systems of political organization that existed before then. As such, the masses needed an alternative system that they could identify with and thus the rise of Benito Mussolini to power in 1922 in Italy and his promise to create a system of governance that would rejuvenate nationalistic pride was well received. Following the rise of Mussolini, Adolf Hitler sought to use similar strategies in Germany in the 1930s and found a ready audience since he capitalized on the loss of reputation for the Germans following their defeat in the World War I. Apart from the economic factors, other factors such as the rise of communism and the political instabilities in the region enabled fascism to gain root in Germany. The contribution of these factors to fascism in Germany is considered further in the subsequent sections of this paper.

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Connecting and reconnecting with influencers

The changing economic climate, technological advancements and increasing competition resulting trade globalization has had a great impact on marketing. Increasing advertising expenditure, for instance, does not guarantee increased clients as would have been expected. Businesses that continue to use the traditional reach and frequency model of marketing might actually find that such approaches are destined more towards diminishing returns. The complicated nature of the market that has provided customers with numerous options to choose from implies that marketing approaches aimed at the undefined mass might actually not yield desired results. Such observations then necessitate new approaches to consumer marketing that do not only prove effective but also provide ways to measure and sustain their success. How then can businesses ensure that they don’t get out of work in the modern times? This paper evaluates the best strategies through which firms can use to connect and reconnect with influencers particularly in exploring the role of networking to ensure sustainable business growth. (more…)

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Rule utilitarianism

The best aspects of act utilitarianism ought to be combined with the best of the philosophers’ ethics. According to the rule utilitarian, consequences of each action should not be assessed separately, but rather, general rules about the kind of action which is expected to produce greater happiness for the greatest number of people should be adopted (Warburton, 53). Generally, since punishing people produces more pain than happiness, the rule utilitarian argues that ‘an innocent should never be punished’. Such a rule ignores the fact that at certain circumstances, more happiness than unhappiness may be produced by punishing the innocent, especially as a way of preventing and/or reducing violent crime. Although the rule utilitarian condemns punishing the innocent, the outcome of the punishment was more beneficial and brought more happiness to the society. (more…)

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Act-utilitarianism

Stating a system of ethics that would be free from traditional and theological relations would be called forth while trying to solve different conflicts. Act-utilitarianism argues that the rightness or wrongness of an action is based on the goodness or badness of its consequences (Smart and Williams, 4). According to the act-utilitarian, the logical way to decide what to do is based on the open available options, which must be selected according to the end results of the action. In this case, a utilitarian advocates for an action that will maximize the expected happiness as well as the wellbeing of the humanity at large. In a situation that an individual performs an action as a way of fulfilling a promise without deliberating on the consequences, the act-utilitarian considers such acts as habitual and using rule of thumb. This may have been enacted by the authority which decided to foil the information in spite of the consequences. The act-utilitarian believes that any action ought to be followed by moral thinking with choices being made after wise deliberations of the outcomes. Although the rule conceives that enough time should be taken to make proper choices, there is no inconsistency for the act-utilitarian to act (Smart and Williams, 43). In an ideal world there would have been no time to deliberate on whether to arrest the suspect or otherwise. While not forgetting that the suspect could be armed at the time of the arrest, the rule considers protecting the society as a moral thing above other considerations. At normal circumstances, the act-utilitarian will keep his promises as a matter of habit. The principle also values unbiased choices. Since act- utilitarianism suggests that any action that maximizes the expected happiness as well as the well being of the humanity should be encouraged, based on this notion, an act utilitarian would consider the act of arresting the suspect as advantageous to the society who would otherwise suffer from the terrorism attack. In this case, arresting the man brought maximum benefits to the society. On the other hand, although the rule condemns biased choices, the decision of arresting the man, though deprived him his liberty was better in relation to setting him free and leaving the whole society to suffer from the attack. On contrary, to the rule utilitarian’s perception, an act utilitarian would have considered the punishment as a benefit, since as a way of avoiding more suffering; the suspect revealed the information on the impended car bomb attack. This was obviously crucial to the authority since the right measures would be put to prevent the welfare of the society.

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