How celebrity endorsements work – product match-up model

Product match-up model contends that celebrity effectiveness is influenced by the extent of the celebrity-brand fit (Till & Buster, 1998, as cited in Khatri, 2006). Accordingly, the messages brought out by the celebrity’s image and the product message should be in harmony for the endorsement to prove effective (Kamins 1990, as cited in Erdogan, 1999). In evaluating such propositions Friedman and Friedman (1979) findings suggested a positive interaction between the celebrity traits and the product nature. Reinforcing such suggestions a recent study found out that appropriate match-ups were positively related with endorsement’s effectiveness (Liu et al. 2007). In this study a ‘high endorser-product matchup’ was suggested to generate “higher purchase intention[s] than the low endorser-product match-up” (Liu et al. 2007, p. 358).   Earlier emphasizing the match-up hypothesis; Dickenson (1996) had noted that “as long as the chosen celebrity fits snugly with the brand’s positioning, image and qualities; they can provide a tremendous sales boost” (p. 1).

To explain the celebrity-product match-up effectiveness the Social Adaptation Theory has been inferred (Kahle & Homer, 1985; as cited in Erdogan, 1999). The theory supposes that “the adaptive significance of information … determine[s] its impact” (Erdogan, 1999, p.303). As such, Kamins (1990) observed the use of attractive endorsers could elicit in the consumers the notion that use of the endorsed product would result into a fairer appearance as that of the celebrity (as cited in Erdogan, 1999). Alternatively it is argued that the use of non-matched celebrities could inculcate in the consumers a perception that the endorser’s services have been ‘bought’, thus fail to associate the celebrity used with the brand characteristics (Erdogan, 1999). Go to part 8 here.

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