January 10th, 2018
Cultural Aspects for Cross-boarder Management|Conclusion
From the discussed cultural dimensions a number of distinct themes can be identified. First relates to individualism-collectivism relationships being a measure of whether the society emphasizes the individual or the society as the basis of responsibility and rights allocation (Bhagat & Steers 2009). When individuals derive identity from a group then such would be expected to show some public appreciation in groups. Secondly relates to whether the society views hierarchical or egalitarian systems to be more desirable. Such would relate to whether every one has an equal chance of earning respect (Trompenaars) or whether power is inequitably distributed (Hofstede). The third theme relates to how the society perceives the behaviour of members to be effectively governed which can be identified in the universalism-particularism dimensions by Trompenaars and the uncertainty avoidance criterion by Hofstede (Itim International 2009; Bhagat & Steers 2009). A fourth theme relates to people’s interaction with the environment that generates beliefs about the mechanisms by which the world functions (Bhagat & Steers 2009). All schools of thought presented have advanced culture on this aspect as while as the fifth theme on how to maximize gains with the time available. People thus could be oriented towards a multi-tasking behaviour while others prefer to perform their duties sequentially (Bhagat & Steers 2009). Finally would be a theme of how roles are distributed in the community hence different genders could be content with certain roles or pursue other roles towards gaining equality with the other gender. People could therefore either exhibit distinct separation of roles (specific) or such roles could be integrated [diffuse] (Bhagat & Steers 2009).
Based on these themes then one can conclude that changing environments could have affected national business cultures. This is true since the United States and the United Kingdom comprise different cultures in terms of origin and with respect to the type of governance. If the changing environment then has not impacted on the culture of these countries then perhaps wide differences would be witnessed. It can therefore be argued that as countries move towards economic development; some aspects of culture are compromised to pave ways for a common cultural orientation.
On the other hand however, countries at various levels of development could show different national cultural orientations. Such would also be influenced by the extent to which countries move towards a standardised form of governance, education and economic system. Further various aspects that influence a people’s culture such as language, beliefs and religion might be hard to change. National cultures at the current level of global integration and diversity in system are a hence a factor that business entities must contend with to effectively do business in global markets.
As noted in the discussions though globalization could have aligned some cultures towards synchronicity, national cultures still prove important to multinational corporations. Businesses thus need to evaluate the cultural distance between traditional and new markets in order to develop effective methods of doing business (Ghemawat 2007). For managers to perform well in different nations they need to understand cultural aspects prevailing in these nations to avoid embarrassing scenarios. Some of the important aspects to effective management in foreign nations would thus be:
- Evaluating the strength of social bonds in the society hence the ability to organize teams that are able to work harmoniously to meet the entity’s goals.
- Whether having clearly delineated rules would influence compliance such as in cases of formulating ethical programs or compliance would be better achieved when ethical principles are built out social forces.
- How people value aspects of motivation and appreciation such as promotion, remuneration increment and rewards.
- How importance roles separation between genders would be. Whether some jobs are a preserve for certain gender.
- Whether environmental aspects are at the heart of the people such that an entity that engages in more social responsibility programs would be viewed as a responsible employer.
- How people utilise their time such that some organization of processes in the work places could prove unchallenging hence resulting to boredom and increased employee turnover.
Alessandra, V & Brennan, L 2009, ‘Quality management: A cross-cultural perspective’, Cross cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 149-164. Doi: 10.1108/13527600910953900
Baskerville, RF 2003, ‘Hofstede never studied culture’, Accounting, Organizations and Society, vol. 28, pp. 1-14. Doi: 10.1016/S0361-3682(01)00048-4
Bhagat, RS & Steers, RM (eds) 2009, ‘Cultural foundations’, in Cambridge handbook of culture, organizations, and work, [Excerpt], viewed 08 April 2010 <http://assets.cambridge.org/97805218/77428/excerpt/9780521877428_excerpt.pdf>
Ghemawat, P. (2007). Redefining global strategy: Crossing borders in a world where differences still matter. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Itim International 2009, Geert HofstedeTM cultural dimensions, viewed 08 April 2010, <http://www.geert-hofstede.com/l>
Jacob, N 2005, ‘Cross-cultural investigations: Emerging concepts’, Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 514-528. Doi: 10.1108/09534810510614986
Meaning and dimensions of culture n.d, Winthrop University, viewed 08 April 2010, <http://cba.winthrop.edu/riddlee/MGMT529_S09/Hodgetts4_S09.ppt>
Seymen, OA 2006, ‘The cultural diversity phenomenon in organizations and different approaches for effective cultural diversity management: A literary review’, Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 1352-7606. Doi: 10.1108/13527600610713404
Tayeb, M 2001, ‘Conducting research across cultures: Overcoming drawbacks and obstacles’, International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, vol.1, no. 1, pp. 91-108. Doi: 10.1177/147059580111009
Universiteit Maastricht [UM] Business School n.d, Does the European manager exist? Viewed 08 April 2010 <http://www.esae.org/presentations/081016_01.pdf>