January 10th, 2018
Education Plan for Managing Hypoglycemia in Diabetes Mellitus
Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar/ low blood glucose) is a major risk factor in Type I diabetes mellitus (henceforth herein T1DM) and advanced cases of type II diabetes mellitus (henceforth herein (T2DM). The risk arises mainly from the use of exogenous insulin, sulfonylureas and metformin, and from an impaired glucose feedback regulatory system (Cryer, Davis & Shamoon, 2003). In T1DM, the incidence of hypoglycemia is quite high, characterized by high numbers of asymptomatic episodes in subjects attempting to maintain or improve glycemic control (Cryer, 2001; Cryer et al., 2003). Symptomatic episodes in TIDM are estimated at two episodes per week, with one temporarily disabling episode estimated to occur once in a year (Cryer et al., 2003).
In T2DM, hypoglycemia cases are low in earlier stages probably out of an intact glucose feedback-control system at such stages (Cryer 2002). However, as progressive insulin deficiency result into exogenous insulin administration, hypoglycemia cases in these subjects also increase (Cryer et al., 2003). Further, despite the lower hypoglycemia cases in type II diabetes, the physical and psychosocial adverse outcomes of such cases are similar to those of type I diabetes(Cryer et al., 2003). Combined, the two cases thus present a challenge to effective management of diabetes. Patient education is one way through which the hypoglycemia cases in diabetics can be reduced (Boyle & Zrebiec, 2007a). The purpose of this paper is therefore to present an educational plan for self-management of hypoglycemia in T1DM and advanced T2DM subjects after discharge from hospital. Go to part 2 here.